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Current Situation and Prospect Analysis of Chinese Kitchen Waste Disposal Market

Date : 2018-07-04     View : 3639

What is kitchen waste?


According to the definition in Technical Specification for Disposal of Kitchen Waste, Kitchen Waste is the general name of food waste and kitchen waste. Dining garbage refers to the food residues of restaurants, restaurants, canteens and other units, as well as the processing wastes of fruits and vegetables, meat, grease, pastry, etc. in the back kitchen, which are mainly composed of oil and solid-liquid mixture. Kitchen waste refers to perishable organic garbage such as leftovers of fruits, vegetables and food materials, leftovers, melons and peels, which are discarded in the daily life of families, mainly solid waste.


However, in the kitchen waste treatment project in China, kitchen waste mainly represents the food waste defined above, and kitchen waste represents the kitchen waste defined above. Their properties and treatment processes are quite different. Therefore, the kitchen waste in the treatment project of kitchen waste generally refers to the leftovers and oils produced in the activities of food processing, catering services and unit meals other than daily life of residents, mainly from restaurants, restaurants, restaurants in the catering industry and canteens of enterprises and institutions operated internally. Starch, food cellulose, protein, animal and vegetable fats account for the material composition. More than 95% of dry matter.


The characteristics of kitchen waste can be summarized as follows:


(1) High water content, up to 80-95%.


(2) High salt content, high pepper and acetic acid content in some areas.


(3) High content of organic matter, protein, cellulose, starch, fat, etc.


(4) Rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and various trace elements.


(5) There are pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms.


(6) It is perishable, deteriorating, stinking and breeding mosquitoes.

Disposal scale of kitchen waste


The construction of kitchen waste treatment facilities in China started relatively late. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, a large-scale pilot project was started. According to the requirements of the 12th Five-Year Plan for the Construction of National Urban Domestic Waste Harmless Treatment Facilities, 242 kitchen waste treatment facilities were built during the 12th Five-Year Plan period, aiming to reach 30,000 tons per day. The special project invested 10.9 billion yuan and finally achieved 50%. Community cities initially realize the catering collection and transportation of kitchen waste. However, according to incomplete statistics, by the end of 2015, 118 kitchen waste treatment projects (more than 50t/d) have been put into operation, under construction and under preparation in China, with a total capacity of 215,000 tons/day:


(1) There are 43 kitchen waste disposal facilities in operation with disposal capacity of 0.81 million tons per day, of which 24 were put into operation before 2014 and 19 were put into operation from 2014 to 2015.


(2) There are 35 kitchen waste disposal facilities under construction with disposal capacity of 0.68 million tons per day.


(3) There are 40 treatment facilities under construction with a capacity of 66,600 tons per day.


According to the preliminary draft of the 13th Five-Year Plan for the Construction of National Urban Domestic Waste Harmless Treatment Facilities, it is predicted that the kitchen waste will reach 120,000 tons during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. According to the calculation of 60% disposal capacity, the capacity of disposing 75,000 tons per day will be formed by the end of 2020. According to the planning objectives, the daily disposal capacity of kitchen waste in China will increase by 1.5-3 times in the next five years.


According to the investment and operation cost forecast of kitchen waste disposal project, during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, the total market space of kitchen waste can reach 100-150 billion yuan. Among them, the construction of kitchen waste collection and transportation system needs about 20 billion yuan (including garbage containers, vehicles, including the connection between vehicles and garbage containers), the market of treatment and disposal engineering needs about 50-100 billion yuan, the daily operation market is about 30 billion yuan, and the construction of supervision system can form about 2 billion market scale.


Overall, the overall market for kitchen waste disposal is large and growing rapidly, and it is in the stage of explosive growth.


Kitchen Waste Disposal Policy


In December 2008, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Housing and Construction jointly held the "National On-site Exchange and Seminar on the Utilization of Urban Kitchen Waste Resources" in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. The conference clarified the problems faced by China's kitchen waste treatment industry and provided ideas for the next work of various ministries and commissions.


In May 2010, the National Development and Reform Commission and other four central ministries and commissions jointly issued the Notice on Organizing the Pilot Work on the Resource Utilization and Harmless Treatment of Urban Kitchen Waste, and selected 33 first-tier cities (districts) in China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin and Wuhan, as the first batch of pilot cities. And in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, four batches of pilot cities were announced, the total number of pilot cities reached 100, covering 32 provincial administrative regions.


In July 2010, the General Office of the State Council issued the Opinions on Strengthening the Regulation of Ditch Oil and the Management of Kitchen Waste, proposing measures to strengthen the management of kitchen waste, such as standardizing the treatment of kitchen waste, strengthening the management of the collection and transportation of kitchen waste, establishing a system for the management of kitchen waste, and seriously investigating and dealing with violations of laws and regulations. It also tries to cut off the interest chain of "gutter oil" and effectively solve the problem of "gutter oil" through the comprehensive measures of combining dredging with blocking and curing both symptoms and symptoms from the source.


In April 2011, the Ministry of Construction and other 16 central ministries and commissions issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening the Treatment of Municipal Domestic Waste (MSW). It was proposed that by 2015, more than one demonstration city for MSW classification should be built in each province (region), and 50% of the cities with districts will initially realize the classification collection and transportation of kitchen waste.


In April 2012, the State Council promulgated the "12th Five-Year Plan for the Construction of National Urban Domestic Waste Harmless Treatment Facilities" and put forward a plan to invest 10.9 billion yuan in kitchen waste treatment facilities during the "12th Five-Year Plan", aiming to achieve 242 domestic kitchen waste treatment facilities in 2015, with a capacity of 30,000 tons per day.


In July 2012, the Ministry of Finance and the Development and Reform Commission issued the Interim Measures for the Management of Special Funds for Circular Economy Development. The plan proposed that the central government should allocate 50% of the subsidized funds to start the construction of kitchen waste treatment facilities in pilot cities. In five years, the total amount of new kitchen waste treatment in cities exceeded the set target by more than 90%. The remaining funds will be allocated for those who pass the examination, and those who fail to meet the criteria will be collected. 80% of the funds allocated were returned.


In 2015, the Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Housing and Construction jointly issued the "Medium-term Assessment and End Acceptance Management Measures for the Pilot Project of Utilization and Harmless Treatment of Food and Kitchen Wastes", strengthening the pilot management of resource utilization and harmless treatment of food and kitchen wastes, giving full play to the exploratory and leading role of the pilot demonstration, and improving the efficiency of the use of central financial funds.


Disposal Technology of Kitchen Waste


At present, the main treatment technologies of kitchen waste in China are anaerobic digestion, aerobic treatment and feeding. Among them, anaerobic digestion is the mainstream technology, which is highly praised for its mature technology, but it requires high pretreatment technology and debugging, low conversion rate of resources, and can not effectively solve the burden of kitchen waste treatment. The biggest advantage of aerobic fermentation is short treatment cycle, high turnover rate of waste recycling, small project area, reduction rate as high as 95%. The treatment process is safe and will not cause secondary pollution to the environment. Feeding is currently hampered by safety issues such as homology.


According to the statistics of 111 kitchen waste treatment facilities with known technological routes (more than 50t/d), 80 of them adopted anaerobic fermentation technology, with a capacity of 16 million tons/day, accounting for 76.1%; 4 of them adopted solid compost + liquid fermentation technology, with a capacity of 0.07 million tons./

Disposal cost of kitchen waste


The treatment of kitchen waste belongs to the municipal livelihood project. At present, most domestic projects operate in the PPP mode. According to the known model of 78 pilot urban kitchen waste treatment facilities (more than 50t/d), 49 adopt BOT model, 17 adopt BOO model, 2 adopt BT model, 10 adopt government investment, BOT, BOO model is widely used in kitchen waste treatment projects.


According to technology, the average investment per ton is 582,000 yuan/ton for anaerobic fermentation technology, 97,000 yuan/ton for solid composting + liquid anaerobic technology, 418,000 yuan/ton for aerobic composting technology, 297,000 yuan/ton for rapid aerobic fermentation technology, 340,000 yuan/ton for feed production technology and the average investment for other technologies. The cost is 557,000 yuan/ton.


At present, the average subsidy price of kitchen waste treatment is about 110 yuan/t, the subsidy price of collection and transportation is about 100 yuan/t, and the subsidy price of integration of collection and transportation is about 210 yuan/t.


For the kitchen waste BOT project, China's subsidies are mainly divided into three parts: collection and transportation subsidies, treatment subsidies and special fund subsidies allocated by the state.


Among them, the subsidy for collection and transportation and the subsidy for treatment are the economic support provided by the local government for the operating enterprises. The price of the subsidy is generally agreed by the enterprises and the government, taking into account factors such as region, technology and so on. Special fund subsidy refers to the incentive subsidy provided by the state to promote the development of kitchen waste disposal industry. For example, special funds for circular economy development can only be allocated to the accounts after the government has applied for and approved by its superiors. If the management is not good, there is a risk of recovery.


Zhejiang Gabriel Biological Technology Co., Ltd., as a representative enterprise of kitchen waste treatment, has advanced technology, high-quality products and a set of garbage recycling industry chain optimization model. Relying on Gabriel's independent microbial production and application process, it breaks through the traditional garbage classification and resource-based treatment methods, closely around the word "on-site", and through the in-depth study of domestic garbage. After many years of team efforts, the four-in-one replicable model of urban and rural household waste has been successfully constructed by controlling the source of garbage production and every link in the process of garbage disposal and combining it with Gabriel microbial soil improvement process. It provides advanced technology and valuable application experience for the recycling chain of resources. Pujiang County in Zhejiang Province is now the project replicable template as the center, covering all parts of the country.



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